采访

Character Interview | Li Honglin: C-Data is ready to face changes

From May 28th to 30th, 2021, CCBN2021 officially held in Beijing. As a well-known exhibition in the radio and television industry, industry insiders pay much attention to it. Today, we invited the invited guest of the exhibition: Li Honglin, the executive deputy general manager of C-DATA, to talk to us about the experience of this trip.

11. After participating in this CCBN2021, what is your deepest feeling?

【The industry has entered a bottleneck period. Under this circumstance, who can adapt to the changes and find new product and business directions, who will usher in new opportunities; the living space of traditional enterprises that follow the old fashioned and unprepared will be narrowed】

In CCBN2021, some familiar small and medium-sized enterprises unexpectedly did not come to the exhibition, indicating the bottleneck of the industry and the differentiation of enterprise development.

CCBN is mainly an exhibition in the radio and television industry, while the traditional radio and television market is based on the province as the smallest operating network, unlike China Telecom, China Mobile, and China Unicom, which are operating systems that are one network across the country. In the past, small and medium-sized enterprises still had opportunities. However, as the operating investment of provincial-level radio and television network companies slowed down, the living space and market opportunities for small and medium-sized enterprises were significantly reduced. From the perspective of budget control, many companies at this exhibition did not come.

At the same time, when the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology issued the 5G license, it also issued a 5G license to China Broadcast Network, which is building a nationwide network, which is often referred to as a 700MHZ 5G license. This is a good opportunity for the original telecommunications and mobile equipment suppliers, especially leading companies such as Huawei and ZTE. They want to transplant their capabilities, business models, and products from telecom operators to broadcasting and television. However, since it is still in the early stages of development, there is still a period of in-depth discussion on specific issues such as how to build the network, how to cooperate, and how to proceed with the next step of market promotion. Judging from the importance attached to this exhibition by companies such as Huawei and ZTE, they should be making advance arrangements.

For small and medium-sized enterprises, it is either to withdraw, or to make a breakthrough, or to shift to differentiated market segments. C-Data’s subsidiary Wuxi Leihua, which is in charge of domestic radio and television, won bids in many provinces and cities across the country in 2020, which shows that we have the ability to make breakthroughs. At the same time, we are also engaged in optical transmission DWDM products, smart city products, home network products, etc. Multiple market segments are advancing side by side, digging deeper into demand and expanding the living space.

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2. What impact do you think the epidemic has on this exhibition and the development of the industry?

【The epidemic has a great impact on the exhibition and the industry】

The epidemic has a greater impact on this exhibition, because travel is restricted during the epidemic, and considering safety reasons, the number of customers who come to the exhibition is less than expected. But for all customers who can be there, we can find some excitement to conduct in-depth communication and discuss opportunities for follow-up cooperation. In the past, many international customers came to the exhibition. This time due to the epidemic, international customers were unable to come to the exhibition. For customers who are unable to be present, we try our best to communicate through voice and video chat tools, which not only introduce the exhibition situation but also collect market demand.

The impact of the epidemic on the development of the industry is different at home and abroad.

The domestic epidemic is well controlled, so the impact on the industry is not much felt, and the overall market is stable. However, due to the epidemic in foreign countries, the demand for broadband access, broadband lines, and expansion of transmission bandwidth has increased rapidly, so the market demand for broadband network equipment is increasing.

The epidemic has had a major impact on the entire upstream supply chain. The shortage of chips and supporting materials and the increase in prices are a huge test for communication equipment manufacturers. Some companies with small size, weak anti-risk capabilities, and poor supply chain management capabilities will fall behind. Due to the advance judgment of the situation, C-Data has maintained the stability of upstream resources in the case of material shortages in the market, and can meet the order needs of long-term cooperation value customers. However, it is difficult to meet the order delivery of some new customers and small customers. The short-term turbulence of the epidemic will not change the long-term trend of the industry, and will help outstanding companies grow bigger and stronger.

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3. Are there any industry hotspots in the near future? What do you think of these hot spots? What impact do you think these hot spots will have on us?

【From the perspective of operators, the industry has encountered bottlenecks and overall revenue growth has slowed down. Operators hope that manufacturers can form strategic partnerships with them and develop markets with them.

From the manufacturer’s point of view, the manufacturer’s focus is on speed, and more consideration of C-oriented products and solutions. 】

For manufacturers, the overall market environment has changed considerably in the past 10 years and 20 years ago.

In the first 20 years, China’s communication network was relatively backward, so there was no need for equipment manufacturers to actively promote it. Operators themselves had a strong demand and driving force for investment in network construction. People also needed video, voice, broadband, and video, and the market demand existed objectively.

In the past 10 years, our equipment manufacturers have to run faster and more actively, to invent, create, and promote some advanced solutions, actively attract operators to purchase, build, and invest, and promote operators to improve their business and services. Sell to businesses and consumers. Because the highway is getting wider and wider, the revenue growth slows down for the operators, and there is no novel experience for the common people. It is nothing more than a faster speed and the cheaper the toll, the better, so the manufacturer can do it. The main thing is bandwidth acceleration, it is difficult to have killer applications like smartphones.

From a wireless perspective: switching from 4G to 5G, various needs can be extended from the different application scenarios of 5G;

From the perspective of the home: WIFI6, 10G fiber to the home appears for home access. This is the bandwidth acceleration of different application scenarios.

At the same time, there is also a need for expansion of the trunk network: now it is from 100G to 200G, and it may be 400G or even 1T in the next one or two years.

On the other hand, operators are also worried. Operators hope that manufacturers will not just promote products blindly, but from their perspective, provide more B-side and C-side solutions. The operator hopes that you can tell him that the products and solutions you provide can help him make money in which industry and market direction, and then he has a greater willingness to invest.

Because the payback period of traditional communication equipment is long, it takes about 5 years, but after the acceleration of product iteration, operators are a bit resistant and overwhelmed by the cost pressure of the bandwidth acceleration process. Therefore, operators hope that manufacturers can form strategic partnerships with them and develop markets with them.

Faced with such a market situation, C-Data will naturally not lag behind. For example, our newly established business units and subsidiaries are actively developing and promoting related products and solutions such as smart software, DWDM transmission and network security storage, rather than a simple single product status.

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4. As a manufacturer of communication equipment, what advantages do you think we have?

【First of all, we have a strong manufacturing and R&D team. Secondly, being able to develop to the current state in just a dozen years shows that we have also found our own gameplay in terms of team combat effectiveness, market comprehensiveness, and supply capabilities. 】

Our main advantage lies in: We have a strong manufacturing and R&D team. At the same time, there are nearly 20 years of market and experience accumulation in the industry.

Over the years, as the unicorn companies at the head have grown larger, the growth and opportunities for the second and third tier companies have become less and less. C-Data’s ability to reach the current scale in just a dozen years shows that we have found our own gameplay in terms of team combat effectiveness, market comprehensiveness, and supply capabilities.

In terms of expansion, similar to Huawei’s early years of competing with foreign counterparts and adopting the strategy of encircling cities from rural areas, you are the leading country and operator, and I am the country and customer you did not do. Customers of different sizes will also seek the right products, cost-effectiveness and after-sales service.

But in the differentiated market segments and products, the competitiveness is actually converging, mainly depending on the strategic layout of the operators.

In fact, the operator does not want a certain equipment supplier to dominate the rivers and lakes, so that it becomes Party B commanding Party A. If the operator has a personalized demand for network reform, the need for customization is completely controlled by the supplier, so They want to be diversified.

5. As a communications equipment manufacturer, what do you think we can improve?

[Own original product improvement, brand building, product line diversification]

First of all, it must be the improvement of its own original products, so there is no need to say more about this.

Secondly, it is brand building.

In fact, the communications industry has changed from a high-tech industry to a basic industry. With the increase of capacity, the accumulation of products and technologies, there is a process of transforming cocoons into butterflies from quantitative changes to qualitative changes, rather than simply saying that he can do what I cannot do. That is to say, my current ability and level are there, but my brand is not as good as yours. I cannot reach the comprehensiveness of my market layout and product solutions. Therefore, brand building is particularly important.

Finally, the product line is diversified.

There is now such a trend: the original leading companies in the communications industry or the leading companies of large IT companies are using their original R&D capabilities and manufacturing capabilities to move toward smart terminals, home appliances, enterprises, and related software. Hardware extension, plus one’s own understanding of a certain type of product, to cross-border.

A typical example is the success of the Internet industry. It is equivalent to saying that the operator is making the road wider and wider. He is a road repairer and we are a provider of sand and gravel cement. However, the operator only earns tolls. Then who builds the cars on the road? Who makes more? Therefore, try to diversify your product line as much as possible.

CCBN2021 was officially held in Beijing today, C-DATA’s pon series products attracted attention

CCBN2021 (The 28th China International Radio and Television Information Network Exhibition) was officially held today at the China International Exhibition Center in Beijing. C-DATA’s booth is located at 2B301. It is reported that nearly 1,000 companies and institutions participated in the exhibition, and the total number of exhibitors today is tens of thousands.

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As a world-renowned exhibition of radio and television and network audio-visual technology and equipment, ccbn2021 comprehensively demonstrated to us various technical equipment and innovative applications such as radio and television and network audio-visual collection production, transmission coverage, operation management, terminal services, etc.

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As one of the exhibitors, C-DATA also fully demonstrated the company’s main products at the exhibition today: MESH ONU and XPON OLT, as well as the newly developed new private cloud storage product: household private cloud storage hundred boxes H2 and E1 enterprise-level file management machines.

As your loyal partner, C-DATA will continue to follow up with you on the spot situation. What’s more exciting content tomorrow? Let’s wait and see!

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ANGA COM DIGITAL Comming Soon

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Dear Customers,

 

ANGA COM DIGITAL will be held on line from June 8-10,2021.Here’s the link to register: https://tinyurl.com/yfwy2jrc,welcome to visit us there.

 

As you know,C-DATA is a high-tech enterprise focusing on the research and development and manufacturing of communication equipment,experience in the field of optical fiber and wireless access network with years. At the same time, the company is actively developing in the field of backbone network transmission equipment and home network equipment. Our products, in terms of functional features and performance indicators, can also fully meet the needs of fiber optic and wireless access applications from operators and enterprises to buildings and homes.

In this exhibition, we will show you full series product of GPON/EPON in FTTx ,DWDM transmission, WIFI6 wireless access and private cloud storage devices.

We sincerely invite you and look forward to your visit!

service configuration management 2

TR069 Protocol or WAN Connection, Which is Better?

TR069 Protocol or WAN Connection, Which is Better?

Preface

The rapid development of information technology and extensive use of a large number of terminal access devices are challenging the types, volume, and scale of services carried by PON (Passive Optical Network). The increasing service of PON requires effective management for the customer premises equipment.

We learn from the previous article titled Differences between HGU ONU and SFU ONU that OLT configures and manages ONU through OAM / OMCI. There is a one-to-one mapping between the GEM port on the WAN side and the UNI port on the LAN side in SFU ONU, so OLT can control each port and monitor the traffic of the ONU.

However, OLT fails to remote manage the HGU ONU due to that the data docking between OLT and ONU is through VEIP whose tasks nevertheless are configured by ONU itself, which is unacceptable for the gateway type ONU terminals widely used in the network of operators.

Management mode based on the TR069 protocol and the development of WAN connection based on private OMCI is two solutions applied to the remote management of ONU, facilitating the business distribution and saving the maintenance cost of operators.

The rest of this article will focus on the introduction and applications of the TR069 protocol and WAN connection configuration.

  1. TR069 Protocol

TR069 short for “Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) WAN Management Protocol (CWMP)”, is an Internet Protocol developed by DSL forum suitable for remote management of CPE. As the document number used to carry the protocol is TR069 in the DSL forum, it is referred to as TR069 protocol.

1.1Management Mode of TR069 Protocol

The management server, such as ONU, in the management mode defined by TR069 protocol, goes by the name of the Auto-Configuration Server (ACS) that is responsible for the management of Customer Premise Equipment (CPE). The interface between ACS and CPE calls the southbound interface, and the interface between ACS and other network management systems, service management systems, and billing systems (OSS / BSS) of operators is the northbound interface. While TR069 protocol mainly defines the standard of southbound interface and allows ACS to provide services to a CPE or a group of CPEs based on multiple standards.

service configuration management

Figure 1.1 Management Mode of TR069 Protocol

1.2 Functions of TR069 Protocol

TR069 protocol describes a mechanism that builds a safe framework of automatic configuration and management for CPE by ACS and adds the management function of CPE to this framework. The purpose is to manage a CPE or CPE collection by achieving the following functions.

1.2.1 Auto-configuration and dynamic services provisioning. The parameters involved in the mechanism include both general parameters and user-defined parameters (such as WAN connection, Wi-Fi, voice, etc.), leaving more independent space for software implementation.

1.2.2 Software and firmware image management. Downloading and uploading files are available for CPE. The protocol provides a method to check the software or firmware version and can process files of signature data. After the end of file transfer, ACS will be notified whether return successfully or not.

1.2.3 Diagnosis. TR069 protocol supports the generation of effective diagnostic information by CPE. ACS diagnoses and solves connectivity or service problems with this information and powers with the pre-defined diagnostic ability.

1.2.4 Alarm. Event reports are actively sent by CPE to realize real-time alarms of equipment.

1.2.5 Traversing NAT connection. TR069 protocol allows ACS to manage devices following NAT but limits initiating sessions. The mechanism of TR111 is a supplement to TR069, which enables ACS to initiate a session. CPE will search for ACS server automatically in initial installation (CPE, when it leaves the factory, is configured with a default URL address that points to ACS server). Communication and download with ACS after successful connection can achieve, and the management after NAT gateway will be perfect..

1.3 Protocol Stack Structure

The protocol stack structure of TR069 is shown in the following table:

Layer Description
CPE/ACS Management Application The CWMP protocol can be achieved by the management application on the CPE and ACS respectively. The application is defined locally but not as part of the CWMP protocol.
RPC Methods CWMP protocol defines various RPC methods to realize the interaction between ACS and CPE. The RPC method includes defining CPE parameters which can be accessed by ACS and the PRC method associated with this parameter.
SOAP Remote encode based on standard XML syntax to avoid the conflict with firewall.
HTTP HTTP 1.1
SSL/TLS Standard network transport layer security protocol (optional). SSL protocol specifies a layered mechanism that ensures data security between application protocol and TCP / IP protocol. It provides data encryption, server witness, message integrity and optional client authentication for TCP / IP connection to ensure that the data will not be changed during transmission.
TCP/IP Standard TCP/IP

1.4 TR069 Session

The TR069 session begins with the connection between CPE and the TCP / IP of ACS. In the process of connection, CPE as the HTTP client sends its SOAP requests to ACS through HTTP post, while ACS as the HTTP server sends its SOAP request to the user’s device through the HTTP response. Each HTTP request can contain multiple SOAP requests or responses. Moreover, the parameter information of CPE can be configured and obtained through the set and get operations in this process. Finally, the connection closes.

To ensure the security of the management system, the TR069 protocol suggests SSL / TLS the authentication for the user equipment. The authentication method defined in HTTP 1.1 should be used if SSL / TLS is not allowed. The specific TR069 session flow is shown in figure 1.2.

connection

Figure 1.2 TR069 Session Flow

In particular, since ACS and CPE are from different manufacturers, the node settings of ACS’s and CPE’s parameters are more or less different. There is a need for CPE manufacturers to make adjustments according to the parameters of ACS. This is the reason why we get feedback from customers that it is impossible to configure C-Data ONU through TR069 protocol on ACS.

 

Generally, the HGU ONU on the market, for the convenience of management, configuration, and monitoring, has to support the TR069 protocol.

2. WAN Connection of ONU

2.1 What is WAN Connection?

WAN is the abbreviation of Wide Area Network. WAN connection refers to the way a device connects to a WAN. For example, there are user-oriented interfaces, including POTS telephone interface, broadband LAN interface, WiFi wireless interface, and so on in a home gateway.

2.2 Principle of WAN Connection

In EPON and GPON, the protocols that OLT used to manage ONU in EPON and GPON are OAM and OMCI, respectively. Here we take OMCI as an example.

OMCI (ONU Management and Control Interface) is a kind of transmission channel defined in GPON standard to transmit OMCI messages by establishing a proprietary ATM PVC or GEM PORT between OLT and ONT. It is available for configuration management, fault management, performance management, and security management of ONU devices. ONT establishes the OMCI channel when registering with OLT. OMCI is a master-slave management protocol in which the OLT is master, and the ONT is the slave. OLT controls multiple ONT devices under OLT through the OMCI channel. Figure 2.1 shows the OMCI model for reference.

ONT management and control interface

Figure 2.1 OMCI Model for Reference

2.3 Analysis of OMCI Message Format

OLT and ONU interact through OMCI. GPON standard protocol defines the OMCI message format, as shown in Table 2.1:

Segment ATM/GEM Header Transaction

Correlation

Identifier

Message Type Device Identifier Device Identifier Message contents OMCI Trailer
Length(byte) 5 2 1 1 4 Baseling 8
32
Extend
2 0-1964

Table 2.1 OMCI Message Format

The explanation of each field is as follows:

  • ATM/GEM Header:Itcontains information to distinguish different GEM ports。
  • Transaction Correlation Identifier: the numericalvalue of this field should be consistent in a group of messages corresponding to requests and responses. In the Baseline OMCI message, the highest bit of this field indicates the priority of the OMCI message.
  • Device identifier: 0xA represents the Baseline list, and 0xB stands for the Extend list.
  • Message identifier: a 2-byte entity or instance ID
  • Message Contents: packet payload.
  • OMCI trailer: two bytes are packet length 0x28 and four bytes are CRC32 for Baseline OMCI message; while only four bytes for Extend OMCI.

Message Type:

  • DB (Destination Bit): it is consistently 0.
  • AR (Acknowledge Request): whether an OMCI message requires the response.
  • AK (Acknowledge): whether an OMCI message is a response.
  • MT (Message Type): supports up to 32 message types and message types 4 through 28 are defined in the protocol.

The specific definition of relevant configuration parameters of WAN connection will not be detailed here as they are defined by the equipment manufacturer in Baseline list.

As a matter of fact, there is no relevant configuration parameters of WAN connection in G984 / G988 standard. Therefore, some relevant parameters is defined in Extend list by the device manufacturers to meet the needs of users and the WAN connection becomes a private protocol of the equipment manufacturer. It throws out the requirement that private protocol of the equipment manufacturer should be available for both OLT and ONU.

3. Comparison of TR069 Protocoland WAN Connection

TR069 protocol and WAN connection differ in application due to difference of protocols. Three aspects are compared as follows:

  • Cost performance

A TR069 server has to be set up in the network if TR069 management method is applied. The configuration and operation cost of TR069 server is nothing to large-scale operators or ISPs. Moreover, TR069 can effectively solve the problem of batch distribution for ONU’s service. However, small-scale operators or ISPs prefer more economical solution as the cost of TR069 server is too high for them. WAN connection that only need to be compatible with software on OLT is the key to them, without any hardware cost.

  • Compatibility

There are compatibility problems for TR069 protocol and WAN connection due to the difference of device manufacturers and definitions. It is relatively easy to deal with the compatibility problem of TR069 protocol by providing the information of each TR069 node they need to the home gateway manufacturers for software compatibility processing.

As for the compatibility of WAN connection, C-Data sets its own private protocol to realize the configuration of WAN connection. Nevertheless, if there are third-party ONU devices in the system, the third-party ONU manufacturers requires to do compatibility development.

  • Easy to manage

Only the network between the TR069 server and the home gateway device is interoperable can the TR069 server effectively manage the home gateway and automatically configure the terminal device successfully registered on the server. There are many subnets and routers between the server and CPE, so the network is relatively complex. If the network is unstable, TR069 server will be difficult to manage the home gateway equipment. Therefore, a strict requirement is for TR069 server and its network.

It is much more convenient and easier for WAN connection to configure and manage home gateway than that of TR069 server. That is because there is only one optical fiber between OLT and ONU and no complex network structure. OLT still manage ONU even if the user’s Internet service is not available as long as the ONU is registered with OLT.

4. ONU Models that Support TR069 Protocol / WAN Connection

No. ONU Configuration ONU Model TR069 WAN Connection
1 EPON&GPON&XPON 1GE/1GE+CATV FD511G&FD701G series Not support Support
2 EPON&GPON&XPON 1GE+wifi/1GE+1FE+wifi/

4GE+2pots+wifi(AC)

FD511GW&FD512XW&FD702XW&FD604GW&FD804GW series Support Support
3 EPON&GPON&XPON

1GE+3FE/1GE+3FE+CATV/4GE

FD50X&FD704X&FD504G series Not support Not support

5. Conclusion

You may come to a clear understanding for TR069 protocol and WAN connection from the above introduction. TR069 protocol and WAN connection are two management methods that both can realize the remote management of gateway ONU and have their own characteristics. When it comes to which one is the best, it spends on your specific networking and requirements.

As a professional supplier of FTTH broadband access products, Shenzhen C-Data Technology Co., Ltd. will forge ahead to enhance technical ability, develop applicable products that cater to customers’ needs, and escort the construction and development of customers’ network.

1GE ONU adopts Realtek RTL9601D chip solution

C-Data latest products 1GE ONU adopts Realtek RTL9601D chip solution

Recently, Shenzhen C-Data launched the latest products 1GE ONU. The ONU is based on Realtek RTL9601D chip solution, support GPON and EPON dual-mode passive optical network, and provide users up to Gigabit data access service through the PON network, and can be used for fiber access for home or SOHO business users. Features of high cost performance, high reliability and easy maintenance. The product is fully compatible with ITU G.984.x and IEEE802.3ah technical standards, and meets the technical requirements of operators for passive optical network terminal equipment.

C31 场景图

The ONU has an integrated white body and uses environmentally friendly, flame-retardant ABS material. The overall design conforms to the prevailing simple and fashionable style. The rear panel of the ONU is equipped with optical ports and LAN ports. The optical ports are used to connect to the network-side optical fiber link, and the electrical ports are used to connect to terminal devices such as PCs on the user side. The electrical port uses a standard RJ45 interface, 8-pin, to ensure the stability and reliability of data transmission. The equipment can be remotely configured and managed by the OLT, which is very convenient for installation and management. A set of LED indicators are provided on the top of the front of the fuselage, a POWER, an optical port, a LAN port, and system and link indicators. The working status of the equipment can be displayed to facilitate users to understand the operation of the equipment. The indicator light is yellow-green, clear, soft and pleasant. The fine heat dissipation holes on the sides and bottom of the shell are conducive to the dissipation of heat, which helps the internal chip to dissipate heat and ensure the stability of the product for a long time.

C-Data and Realtek have maintained a good cooperative relationship in a number of product areas. C-Data will take advantage of the performance and supply capacity of the RTL9601D chip to further consolidate the market position of C-Data ONU products and achieve a win-win cooperation.

different between HGU and SFU

Differences between HGU ONU and SFU ONU

Brief video ☞  Differences between HGU ONU and SFU ONU

Preface

The development of information technology and network shortens the distance between people and makes people increasingly inseparable from the network. PON (Passive Optical Network) technology, mainly composed of OLT, ODN, and ONU, as we all know, tends to mature and has been widely used so far. ONU is usually placed in the user’s home and varies with the diversity of users’ needs. As for the types of ONU, HGU ONU and SFU ONU are always come into our eyes, but few people can tell the difference between them. What exactly are SFU ONU and HGU ONU? You will get the answer in the rest of the article.

1.PON System

From the beginning, there is necessary to learn about PON as the critical part of ONU. PON (Passive Optical Network) is a kind of single-fiber bidirectional optical access network with a point to multipoint (P2MP) structure with a typical tree-type topology. The system composed of OLT (Optical Line Terminal), ONU (Optical Network Unit), and ODN (Optical Distribution Network) which provides a transmission channel, is what we call the PON system.

In the downlink direction (OLT to ONU), the signal sent by OLT reaches each ONUs through ODN. While in the uplink direction (from ONU to OLT), the signal sent by ONU only reaches OLT, not other ONUs. To avoid data conflict and improve network efficiency, the uplink direction adopts TDMA mode and manages the data transmission of each ONU. ODN provides an optical channel between OLT and ONU. The structure of PON is shown in Figure 1.1.

PON Structure for Reference

Figure 1.1 PON Structure for Reference

2.What is ONU?

ONU belongs to the terminal equipment of PON technology, playing an essential role in the PON system. ONU, in between the ODN and user equipment, provides the optical interface and the electrical interface to realize the processing, maintenance, and management of various photoelectric signals. There are currently user-side ONU devices, also known as the optical modem, directly installed in home.

The core layer, service layer, and public layer consist of the inner part of ONU. The core layer provides multiplexing and optical interface; the service layer mainly refers to user port, and the public layer ensures power supply and maintenance management. ONU is divided into active optical network units and passive optical network units. Generally, the equipment with an optical receiver, uplink optical transmitter, and multiple bridge amplifiers is called an optical node. The PON connects to the OLT which connects to the ONU through a single fiber. ONU can access various user terminals, such as set-top box, wireless router, TV, etc., and occupies functions of photoelectric conversion, maintenance, and monitoring.

3.Classification and Application of ONU

According to the application, ONU can be divided into six types, namely SFU (Single Family Unit) ONU, HGU (Home Gateway Unit) ONU, MDU (Multi-Dwelling Unit) ONU, SBU (Single Business Unit) ONU, MTU (Multi-Tenant Unit) ONU and CBU (Cellular Backhaul Unit) ONU. However, only SFU (Single Family Unit) ONU and HGU (Home Gateway Unit) ONU are used by the end-users in practical application.

These two types of ONUs will be introduced in the following.

(1)HGU(Home Gateway Unit)ONU

HGU ONU takes the Virtual Ethernet interface point (VEIP) as the partition point of the OMCI management domain and the non OMCI management domain (TR069, SNMP, etc.) in the data plane. The ME achieves management only through OMCI. The non OMCI management domain can only manage all services and functional modules under the VEIP. Only one VEIP is allowed in each HGU. ONU will report VEIP or PPTP (Physical Path Termination Point) when MIB is uploaded according to the type of the device, while HGU can only use and report VEIP rather than PPTP. OLT will judge the type of ONU devices according to the attribution of ONU type in ONU capability. Figure 3.1 shows the service process of HGU ONU.

Service Process of HGU ONU

Figure 3.1 Service Process of HGU ONU

HGU ONU, a home gateway with an uplink interface of the PON, is designed for the single family unit, which is similar to SFU ONU. Compared to SFU ONU, HGU ONU integrates the functions of ONU and RG to realize more complex control and management and provide Ethernet / IP service, VoIP service, and optional CATV service. HGU ONU has an Ethernet interface and pots interface, and WLAN interface, USB interface, and CATV RF interface are also available. Besides, TR-069 remote management and EMS local and remote management of physical layer and link layer related to PON interface are supported by HGU ONU that mainly used in FTTH scenarios.

Classified by the differences in service processes and interface numbers of ONUs, HGU ONUs has two specific forms shown in table 3-1.

Table 3-1 Specific Forms of HGU ONU

Number Interface Type Quantity of Ethernet Ports Quantity of POTS Port Quantity of WLAN Ports Quantity of USB Ports CATV RF Port
HGU-1A 1G 4 FE 2(or 1) 1(or 2) 1 optional
HGU-1B 10G/1G 4 GE or FE 2(or 1) 1(or 2) 1 optional
HGU-2A 1G 4(or 2)FE 2(or 1) 0 0 optional
HGU-2B 10G/1G 4(or 2)GE or FE 2(or 1) 0 0 optional

Note:

PPTP is that OLT directly sends VLAN data to each physical interface of ONU, fixing the whole processing process of data flow. VEIP virtualizes the total interface of an ONU. OLT and ONU conduct data docking through VEI. The services under VEIP are managed by ONU through their configuration. In short, PPTP is a LAN port, and VEIP is the virtual WAN port in HGU.

(2)SFU(Single Family Unit)ONU

SFU ONU only supports the OMCI management domain. PPTP is what SFU uses and reports, while VEIP is not available. The processing mode of OMCI configured data flow is different from that of RG flow. For OMCI data flow, there is a one-to-one mapping between the GEM port on the WAN side and the UNI port on the LAN side. All data packets can pass through without MAC address learning or forwarding. Wireless interfaces are not allowed in OMCI. Figure 3.2 shows the service process of SFU ONU.

Service Process of SFU ONU

Figure 3.2 Service Process of SFU ONU

SFU ONU is designed for a single family unit with broadband access terminal function without a more complex home gateway function from the perspective of application and ONU capacity. SFU ONU, mainly used in FTTH scenarios, has 1 or 4 Ethernet interfaces and is available for Ethernet / IP services, optional VoIP services (built-in IAD), or CATV services.

There are three specific forms of SFU ONU according to the difference of service process and interface quantity of ONU shown in Table 3-2.

Table 3-2 Specific Forms of SFU ONU

Number

Interface type Quantity of Ethernet Ports Quantity of POTS Ports CATV RF Port
SFU-1A 1G 1 GE or FE 0 optional
SFU-1B 10G/1G 1 GE or FE 0 optional
SFU-2A 1G 4 FE 0 optional
SFU-2B 10G/1G 4 GE or FE 0 optional
SFU-3 1G 4 FE 2 optional

Note: SFU is suitable for commercial customers if TDM service is not included.

SFU ONU works under the bridging mode (layer 2 of ISO model), supports multiple VLAN functions, and its Ethernet port can be configured and managed by OLT through OMCI / OAM. Combined with a home gateway, SFU ONU is good at providing strong service capability. However, SFU ONU does not have a three-layer routing function and WAN connection configuration. The Single port 1GE ONU of C-Data is an exception as it has three-layer routing, static routing, PPPoE, DHCP function, etc.

(3)Functional Differences between HGU ONU and SFU ONU

SFU ONU HGU ONU
Type of PON EPON / GPON EPON / GPON
EPON/GPON Standard IEEE 802.3/802.3ah

ITU-TG.984.x

IEEE 802.3/802.3ah

ITU-TG.984.x

Bridging /Routing Bridging/L2 Bridging/L2 and Routing/L3
WAN Configuration Not support Support
TR069 Function Not support Support
OLT to configure its  Ethernet Ports Support Not support
NAT Function Not support Support
Port Forwarding Function Not support Support
Loop Detection Function Support Not support
DHCP Server Not support Support
Wireless WIFI Not support Support

4C-DATA SFU/HGU ONU

Number ONU Form ONU Model SFU/HGU
1 EPON & GPON & XPON 1GE / 1GE + CATV FD511G & FD701G series SFU ONU(with routing function)
2 EPON & GPON & XPON 1GE + Wi-Fi / 1GE + 1FE + Wi-Fi /

4GE + 2 pots + Wi-Fi (AC)

FD511GW & FD512XW & FD702XW & FD604GW & FD804GW series HGU ONU
3 EPON & GPON & XPON

1GE + 3FE / 1GE + 3FE + CATV / 4GE

FD50X & FD704X & FD504G series SFU ONU (without routing function)

 

5.Conclusion

Both SFU ONU and HGU ONU have their advantages and disadvantages. The truth is that the main role of ONU is to provide end-users with bandwidth access, playing a vital role in the “last mile” of the access network so that end users can better enjoy the network. Therefore, choosing the right ONU should depend on your network environment.

As a professional ONU supplier, C-Data Shenzhen will focus more on the accumulation and research of technical knowledge to improve our ONU products and meet the customers’ needs for unimpeded network experience. Moreover, C-Data Shenzhen will step further with our customers by improving the quality of products and services without delay.